You are here : Control System Design - Index | Simulations | Inverted Pendulum | Part 5 ## Inverted Pendulum Tutorial - Part 5Before continuing, make sure you have read Chapter 17, Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. ## State Feedback ControlNow we will attempt to design a state feedback controller for the inverted pendulum system. We will design this controller under the assumption that both the pendulum angle and cart position can be measured. (Note, if we assumed that only the cart position could be measured, we would be facing a difficult problem as before - i.e. using a state feedback controller with an observer would provide us with no advantages over the previous design.) The state space form of the system is:
Since we assume that angle and position can be measured perfectly, the
First, we note that the system is controllable, since the controllability matrix
is invertible. The system is also observable, so there is point in continuing in the design of the state feedback controller. We first design the controller, ignoring the observer. In state
feedback control, we set
The poles of the closed-loop system are the roots of the polynomial det( The next step is to choose the desired location of these closed loop
poles. Arbitrarily, let the closed loop system have two poles at -1 and
poles at -1 ± j. The
Solving this equation yields
which is the required controller. However, not all of the state variables are measurable, so we must use an observer to reconstruct the state variables of the system from the outputs which can be measured. Due to the choice of state variables, this is an especially easy task in this case, since the variables which cannot be measured are simply the derivatives of the cart position and pendulum angle. Remembering that we cannot implement a pure derivative, the observer is
The diagram below shows the closed loop system including the observer.
The JAVA applet below shows the simulation of the closed loop state
feedback controller/observer system. The interface is very similar to
previous ones: use the "Change Parameters" button to alter the
system parameters. This time, instead of altering the transfer function of
the controller, you change the K vector of the controller. The left-most
text entry field represents The system state variables can also be altered instantaneously. This can be used to simulate step responses, since the controller will try to drive the system's state to zero. The state fields, in order from left to right, are
Notice that the controller is as good as the previous cascade controller, since the same two variables are being measured. This controller also has similar noise rejection capabilities to the cascade controller. |